Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.

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Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.
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Katyusha multiple rocket launchers (Russian: Катюша) are a variety of rocket artillery 1st built and fielded by the Soviet Union in Globe War II. Compared to other artillery, these a number of rocket launchers provide a devastating quantity of explosives to an location target swiftly, but with reduced accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but low-cost and effortless to produce. Katyushas of Planet War II, the initial self-propelled artillery mass-created by the Soviet Union,[1] have been typically mounted on trucks. This mobility gave Katyushas (and other self-propelled artillery) another advantage: being capable to provide a large blow all at after, and then move prior to becoming situated and attacked with counter-battery fire.

Katyusha weapons of Planet War II integrated the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet several rocket launchers—notably the frequent BM-21—and derivatives.

The nickname

Initially, the secrecy kept their military designation from being recognized by the soldiers who operated them. They have been known as by code names such as Kostikov Guns (soon after the head of the RNII), and finally classed as Guards Mortars.[2] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until right after the war.[three]

Since they have been marked with the letter K, for Voronezh Komintern Factory,[3] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky’s well-known wartime song, Katyusha, about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who is away performing military service.[4] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha.

German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin’s organ (German: Stalinorgel), soon after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for its visual resemblance to a church musical organ and alluding to the sound of the weapon’s rockets. They are known by the exact same name in Sweden. [4]

The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, “Andrew”, endearing diminutive).[five]
Katyushas of Globe War II

Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on many platforms throughout Globe War II, such as on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.

The style was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets had been mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each and every truck had in between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 method was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.two centimetres (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (very first the designation, and then the actual size), to keep away from confusing them with standard artillery shells[three]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-primarily based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom finish. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed about 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (3.four mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets had been also developed.

The weapon is much less correct than traditional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of higher explosives over a four-hectare (ten acres) effect zone.[two] With an effective crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new place instantly right after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries had been frequently massed in very huge numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the extended time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to traditional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was exclusive in that the constant &quotwoosh&quot sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be utilized for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to lower the morale of the German army.

Improvement
Katyushas of World War II

Katyusha rocket launchers had been mounted on a lot of platforms in the course of World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as properly as on naval and riverine vessels as assault help weapons.

The design was relatively straightforward, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each and every truck had in between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 method was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.two centimetres (5.two in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (initial the designation, and then the actual size), to steer clear of confusing them with normal artillery shells[three]. It was propelled by a strong nitrocellulose-based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed around 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (three.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets had been also created.

The weapon is significantly less precise than conventional artillery guns, but is very powerful in saturation bombardment, and was specifically feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered four.35 tons of higher explosives over a four-hectare (ten acres) impact zone.[two] With an effective crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new place right away following firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries had been frequently massed in very large numbers to produce a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the extended time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to traditional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was special in that the continuous &quotwoosh&quot sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be used for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to reduced the morale of the German army.

Combat history
BM-13 battery fire, during the Battle of Berlin, April 1945, with metal blast covers pulled over the windshields

The several rocket launchers have been leading secret in the starting of Globe War II. A unique unit of the NKVD secret police was raised to operate them.[two] On July 7, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first utilized in battle at Orsha in Belarus, beneath the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a station with numerous supply trains, and causing massive German Army casualties. Following the accomplishment, the Red Army organized new Guards Mortar batteries for the assistance of infantry divisions. A battery’s complement was standardized at four launchers. They remained beneath NKVD control till German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became typical later in the war.[6]
A battery of BM-31 numerous rocket launchers in operation

On August 8, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight Particular Guards Mortar regiments beneath the direct control of the Basic Headquarters Reserve (Stavka-VGK). Every single regiment comprised three battalions of 3 batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-eight launchers. Independent Guards Mortar battalions had been also formed, comprising 36 launchers in 3 batteries of twelve. By the finish of 1941, there have been eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, holding a total of 554 launchers.[11]

In June 1942 Heavy Guards Mortar battalions had been formed around the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps.[12] In 1944, the BM-31 was utilized in Motorized Heavy Guards Mortar battalions of 48 launchers. In 1943, Guards Mortar brigades, and later divisions, were formed equipped with static launchers.[11]

By the end of 1942, 57 regiments had been in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries have been in service.[11]
[edit] Katyushas since World War II
Russian forces use BM-27 rocket launchers during the Second Chechen War

The achievement and economy of numerous rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyushas, notably the BM-21 launchers fitting the stereotypical Katyusha mould, and the larger BM-27. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-kind numerous launch rocket systems, including bomblet submunitions, remotely-deployed land mines, and chemical warheads.

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal like the Katyusha rockets. In current history, they have been used by Russian forces in the course of the Initial and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces for the duration of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Georgian government forces are reported to have employed BM-21 or equivalent rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[13]

Katyushas have been exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Syria, and Vietnam. They have been also constructed in Czechoslovakia[14], People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran.[citation required]

Katyushas also saw action in the Korean War, employed by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Soviet BM-13s were identified to have been imported to China prior to the Sino-Soviet split and have been operational in the People’s Liberation Army.

Israel captured BM-24 MRLs during the Six-Day War (1967), utilised them in two battalions for the duration of the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later developed the MAR-240 launcher for the same rockets, based on a Sherman tank chassis. For the duration of the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired among three,970 and four,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-transportable launchers. About 95% of these have been 122 mm (4.8 in) Syrian-manufactured Katyusha artillery rockets, which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a variety of up to 30 km (19 mi).[15][16].[15][17][18] Hamas has launched 122-mm “Grad-kind Katyusha” rockets from the Gaza Strip against several cities in Israel,[19] although they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers.

Katyushas have been also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front in the course of its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, via the 1994 genocide. They have been powerful in battle, but translated into considerably anti-Tutsi sentiment in the regional media.[20]

It was reported that BM-21 launchers have been used against American forces for the duration of 2003 invasion of Iraq. They have also been utilized in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. In Iraq, according to Related Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008.[21][22]

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